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CVD Diamond Substrates

Polycrystalline CVD diamond has been long recognized as the ultimate material in a wide variety of applications due to its extreme qualities. Its unmatched hardness is needed for sophisticated tooling and machining processes worldwide. The high thermal conductivity of diamond has made it useful in thermal management applications. Its wide optical transmission range has allowed diamond windows to make their way into cutting edge future generation lithography systems for semiconductor manufacturing. In addition, its transparency in the microwave band has opened up an entire world of application development in microwave engineering. In its purest form, polycrystalline CVD diamond is free of electronic traps, making it an ideal material for ultra-sensitive nuclear detectors used in high energy applications.

Grown through Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition, II-VI diamond products have been optimized to leverage the qualities that make diamond a super material. Combining crystal growth with state of the art optical grade processing through shaping and polishing, quality assurance and coatings, II-VI Incorporated is the world’s leader in optical grade materials, as well as generating highly transparent microwave windows and the highest sensitivity diamond-based nuclear detectors. II-VI Incorporated’s strong dedication to research and development, including more than 50 combined years in diamond materials development, allows us to work closely with customers in all markets looking to leverage the amazing qualities of polycrystalline CVD diamond.

Transparent Windows and Optics

Optical diamond is in large volume production, consistently producing material of premium optical quality (low 1μm scatter, low 10.6μm bulk absorption, low birefringence at 632.8nm) in a wide range of cross-sectional sizes and thicknesses.
By leveraging core technologies both in fabrication and coating, II-VI has become the world leader in extreme UV optical diamond windows, which are essential for the next generation of advanced lithography tools for semiconductor manufacturing.

Thermal Management Solutions

Through tuning of our growth process, II-VI has the capability of generating polycrystalline CVD diamond for a variety of high performance temperature management applications. Specifications for thermal conductivity range up to more than 2200 W/m-K. Using our world class fabrication facility, we are able to create parts based on customer specifications with shapes as large as 145mm in diameter and thicknesses of up to 2mm and more that are ultra-flat and ultra-smooth to ensure optimum thermal contact to your device.

Microwave Transparent Optics

II-VI manufactures high quality diamond optical products that are transparent in the microwave region. Combining this with in-house capability to polish and coat windows and lenses at diameters as large as 145mm, II-VI is poised to meet the needs of microwave transparent materials in fields such as fusion research.

Machining Solutions|

II-VI has developed a diamond film that possesses exemplary hardness and wear rates when machining even the toughest materials. By combining our state of the art polishing and fabrication techniques with in-house laser fabrication facilities, we are able to generate a world-class product at competitive prices.

Nuclear Detector Solutions

Using a finely tuned, ultra-high purity growth process, II-VI grows polycrystalline diamond films exhibiting industry leading charge collection distances. Consistent results are obtained for 500µm thick finished parts.

Major CVD Diamonds Applications

CVD diamond applications include multispectral laser optics, dielectric windows, heat sinks, and more. 

Diamond is the ultimate material for a wide variety of applications because of its outstanding properties, including extreme hardness and strength, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, excellent dielectric properties, resistance to chemical attack, and optical transmission over a wide spectral range.

We produces high-quality polycrystalline CVD diamond substrates in its state-of-the-art growth and fabrication facilities. The material is grown using a plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process, laser-cut to the required dimensions, and the surface is finished to the customer’s specification. Other special fabrication services are available, such as edge-grinding, laser-engraving, and optical assembly design and fabrication. II-VI specializes in advanced optical coatings for diamond substrates, including AR, HR, and TFP for single wavelength or multi-spectral applications.

Some of the products that can be supplied by II-VI include:

  • High-power CO2 laser windows (10µm range) for industrial laser applications
  • High-power multi-spectral laser windows for industrial or research applications.
  • High-power millimeter-wave windows for fusion and directed energy applications
  • Heat spreaders for extreme thermal management applications
  • Products for mechanical applications requiring ultra-hard materials.

Major CVD Diamonds Applications

  • CO2 Laser Windows(10.6µm)
    - High Power Industrial Leasers
  • High Power Microwave Windows
    - Gyrotrons, Fusion Reactors
    - Radar, Directed Energy Weapons
  • Thermal Management
    - Heat Sinks
Zinc Selenide (ZnSe)

ZnSe is a preferred material for lenses, windows, output couplers and beam expanders for its low absorptivity at infrared wavelengths and its visible transmission. For high-power applications, it's critical that the material bulk absorption and internal defect structure be carefully controlled, that minimum-damage polishing technology be employed, and the highest quality optical thin-film coatings are used. The material absorption is verified by CO2 laser vacuum calorimetry. Our quality assurance department provides testing and specific optics certification on request. ZnSe optics are routinely polished from 5 to 300 mm in diameter. Sizes in 300 mm diameter and 25 mm thick are manufactured to customer requirements. ZnSe is non-hygroscopic and chemically stable, unless treated with strong acids. It's safe to use in most industrial, field, and laboratory environments.

Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) Prism Grade
II-VI Infrared has the capability to grow prism grade ZnSe up to 2.50” thick. Prism grade ZnSe exhibits minimal refractive index variations within the material on planes perpendicular to the growth direction as well as in other directions. Index variations will test to less than 3 ppm at 0.6328 microns regardless of orientation. Prism grade ZnSe is commonly used in thermal imaging systems. Call our technical sales staff to discuss your specific requirements for material greater than 2.50” thick.

  • Refractive index variation less than 3 ppm @0.6328µm in all directions
  • Consistent optical performance independent of orientation
  • Thickness to 2.50"

Optical Properties

Optical Properties
 
Bulk Absorption Coefficient @ 10.6µm
≤ 0.0005 cm-1
Temperature Change of Refractive Index @ 10.6µm
61 x 10-6/°C
Refractive Index Inhomogeneity @ 632.8 nm
< 3 x 10-6

 

Wavelength
(µm)
Index Wavelength
(µm)
Index Wavelength
(µm)
Index Wavelength
(µm)
Index
0.54 2.6754 1.8 2.4496 7.4 2.4201 13.0 2.3850
0.58 2.6312 2.2 2.4437 7.8 2.4183 13.4 2.3816
0.62 2.5994 2.6 2.4401 8.2 2.4163 13.8 2.3781
0.66 2.5755 3.0 2.4376 8.6 2.4143 14.2 2.3744
0.70 2.5568 3.4 2.4356 9.0 2.4122 14.6 2.3705
0.74 2.5418 3.8 2.4339 9.4 2.4100 15.0 2.3665
0.78 2.5295 4.2 2.4324 9.8 2.4077 15.4 2.3623
0.82 2.5193 4.6 2.4309 10.2 2.4053 15.8 2.3579
0.86 2.5107 5.0 2.4295 10.6 2.4028 16.2 2.3534
0.90 2.5034 5.4 2.4281 11.0 2.4001 16.6 2.3487
0.94 2.4971 5.8 2.4266 11.4 2.3974 17.0 2.3448
0.98 2.4916 6.2 2.4251 11.8 2.3945 17.4 2.3387
1.0 2.4892 6.6 2.4235 12.2 2.3915 17.8 2.3333
1.4 2.4609 7.0 2.4218 12.6 2.3883 18.2 2.3278

 

Wavelength
Temp °C
0.632µm
1.5µm
3.39µm
10.6µm
-180
7.6
5.4
5.0
4.9
-160
8.2
5.7
5.2
5.1
-140
8.7
6.0
5.4
5.4
-120
9.1
6.3
5.6
5.5
-100
9.4
6.5
5.8
5.7
-80
9.7
6.6
5.9
5.8
-60
10.0
6.7
6.0
5.9
-40
10.2
6.8
6.1
6.0
-20
10.3
6.9
6.1
6.0
0
10.5
7.0
6.2
6.1
20
10.6
7.0
6.2
6.1
40
10.7
7.0
6.2
6.1
60
10.8
7.1
6.3
6.1
80
10.9
7.1
6.3
6.2
100
11.0
7.2
6.3
6.2
120
11.1
7.2
6.4
6.3
140
11.3
7.3
6.4
6.3
160
11.5
7.4
6.5
6.4
180
11.8
7.6
6.6
6.6
200
12.1
7.8
6.7
6.7
oa
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
aStandard deviation from a third degree polynomial fit
A.Feldman et al, “Optical Materials Characterization Final Technical Report Feb. 1, 1978 - Sept. 30, 1978,” National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 933, Pages 53 and 54.

Thermal Properties

Thermal Properties
 
Thermal Conductivity @ 20° C
0.18 W/cm/°C
Specific Heat
0.356 J/g/°C
Linear Expansion Coefficient @ 20° C
7.57 x 10-6/°C

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties
 
Young’s Modulus
67.2 GPa (9.75 x 106 psi)
Rupture Modulus
55.1 MPa (8,000 psi)
Knoop Hardness
105-120 kg/mm2
Density
5.27 g/cm3
Poisson’s Ratio
0.28
Zinc Sulfide (ZnS)

ZnS grown by chemical vapor desposition (CVD) at II-VI Infrared exhibits exceptional fracture strength and hardness leading to its frequent choice for military applications or other harsh environments. This material is often used in the 8 to 12 microns region. Its high resistance to rain erosion and high-speed dust and particulate abrasion makes it particularly suitable for exterior IR windows on aircraft frames.

ZnS has a lower cost relative to ZnSe and ZnS MS, and has potential wherever a tough and strong IR transmitting material is required.

Optical Properties

Optical Properties
 
Bulk Absorption Coefficient @ 10.6µm
<= 0.24 cm-1
Temperature Change of Refractive Index @ 10.6µm 41 x 10-6/°C
Refractive Index Inhomogeneity @ 10.6µm
< 100 x 10-6

Thermal Properties

Thermal Properties
 
Thermal Conductivity @ 20° C
0.167 W/cm/°C
Specific Heat
0.469 J/g/°C
Linear Expansion Coefficient @ 20° C
6.8 x10-6/°C

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties
 
Young’s Modulus
74.5 GPa (10.8 x 106 psi)
Rupture Modulus
103.4 MPa (15,000 psi)
Knoop Hardness
210-240 kg/mm2
Density
4.08 g/cm3
Poisson’s Ratio
0.27

 

Wavelength
(µm)
Index
Wavelength
(µm)
Index
Index
Wavelength
(µm)
Index
0.42
2.516
1.0
2.292
2.232
13.0
2.152
0.46
2.458
1.4
2.275
2.228
13.4
2.143
0.50
2.419
1.8
2.267
2.225
13.8
2.135
0.54
2.391
2.2
2.263
2.221
14.2
2.126
0.58
2.371
2.6
2.260
2.217
14.6
2.116
0.62
2.355
3.0
2.257
2.212
15.0
2.106
0.66
2.342
3.4
2.255
2.208
15.4
2.095
0.70
2.332
3.8
2.253
2.203
15.8
2.084
0.74
2.323
4.2
2.251
2.198
16.2
2.072
0.78
2.316
4.6
2.248
2.192
16.6
2.059
0.82
2.310
5.0
2.246
2.186
17.0
2.045
0.86
2.305
5.4
2.244
2.180
17.4
2.030
0.90
2.301
5.8
2.241
2.173
17.8
2.015
0.94
2.297
6.2
2.238
2.167
18.2
1.998
0.98
2.294
6.6
2.235
2.159
 
 
Zinc Sulfide MultiSpectral (ZnS MS)

ZnS MultiSpectral is II-VI’s zinc sulfide material treated by a hot isostatic press (HIP) process. Under intense heat and pressure, defects within the crystalline lattice are virtually eliminated, leaving a water-clear material with minimal scatter and high transmission characteristics from 0.4 to 12 microns. This material is particularly well suited for high-performance common aperture systems that must perform across a broad wavelength spectrum.

II-VI’s extensive capabilities, equipment, and experience enable us to offer ZnS MS material to exacting specifications of dimensional shape and tolerances. ZnS MS material is also available in random sizes and shapes for use as evaporative source material.

Optical Properties

Optical Properties
 
Bulk Absorption Coefficient @ 10.6µm
<= 0.20/cm
Temperature Change of Refractive Index @ 0.6328µm
54 x 10-6/°C
Refractive Index Inhomogeneity @ 0.6328µm
< 20 x 10-6

Thermal Properties

Thermal Properties
 
Thermal Conductivity @ 20° C
0.27 W/cm/°C
Specific Heat
0.527 J/g/°C
Linear Expansion Coefficient @ 20° C
6.5 x10-6/°C

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties
 
Young’s Modulus
85.5 GPa (12.4 x 106 psi)
Rupture Modulus
68.9 MPa (10,000 psi)
Knoop Hardness
150-165 kg/mm2
Density
4.09 g/cm3
Poisson’s Ratio
0.27

 

Wavelength
(µm)
Index
Wavelength
(µm)
Index
0.4047
2.54515
1.1287
2.28485
0.4358
2.48918
1.5296
2.27191
0.4678
2.44915
2.0581
2.26442
0.4800
2.43691
3.000
2.25772
0.5086
2.41279
3.500
2.25498
0.5461
2.38838
4.000
2.25231
0.5876
2.36789
4.500
2.24955
0.6438
2.34731
5.000
2.24661
0.6678
2.34033
8.000
2.22334
0.7065
2.33073
9.000
2.21290
0.7800
2.31669
10.000
2.20084
0.7948
2.31438
11.250
2.18317
0.8521
2.30659
12.000
2.17101
0.8943
2.30183
13.000
2.15252
1.0140
2.29165
   
CVD Diamond Substrates
Polycrystalline CVD diamond has been long recognized as the ultimate material in a wide variety of applications due to its extreme qualities. Its unmatched hardness is needed for sophisticated tooling and machining processes world... Read More
Zinc Selenide (ZnSe)
ZnSe is a preferred material for lenses, windows, output couplers and beam expanders for its low absorptivity at infrared wavelengths and its visible transmission. For high-power applications, it's critical that the material bulk absorption and in... Read More
Zinc Sulfide (ZnS)
ZnS grown by chemical vapor desposition (CVD) at II-VI Infrared exhibits exceptional fracture strength and hardness leading to its frequent choice for military applications or other harsh environments. This material is often used in the 8 to 12 mi... Read More
Zinc Sulfide MultiSpectral (ZnS MS)
ZnS MultiSpectral is II-VI’s zinc sulfide material treated by a hot isostatic press (HIP) process. Under intense heat and pressure, defects within the crystalline lattice are virtually eliminated, leaving a water-clear material with minimal scat... Read More
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